Kingmere Marine Conservation Zone is an important Marine Protected Area in Sussex coastal waters. It is named after Kingmere Rocks which is a reef running through the middle of the site. There are also areas of chalk and different types of sediment. It is a place where black seabream come to breed in the spring.
Kingmere MCZ was designated within the first tranche of MCZ sites in November 2013. It is 5-10km south of Littlehampton and Worthing and covers an area of 47km2. It was designated for chalk, rock covered in a thin layer of gravel and sand, as well as black seabream.
Sussex IFCA’s role with regard to Kingmere MCZ is to introduce appropriate management of the fisheries activities that have a negative impact on the features of conservation importance; the black seabream, the chalk and rock covered in a layer of sediment.
Sussex IFCA has introduced management of commercial and recreational fishing that promotes compliance and support from the community, whilst meeting the conservation requirements of Kingmere MCZ. Management came into force in December 2016.
The MPA Byelaw can be found here. This is the over-arching MPA byelaw with Shedule one for Kingmere MCZ and Schedule two for Beachy Head West MCZ.
Additional guidance on the byelaw specific to Kingmere can be found here.
The associated Kingmere Schedule Impact Assessment can be found here.
A leaflet summarising the managment of Kingmere MCZ can be found here
The voluntary Code of Conduct can be found here.
These management measures are specific to Kingmere MCZ. Other management measures may apply, check here.
Kingmere MCZ has three protected features as stated in the designation order. These are Moderate energy infralittoral rock and thin mixed sediments, Subtidal chalk and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus). Infralittoral rock refers to rock that is prodominantly covered in algae. Moderate energy refers to the amount of wave and tidal energy around the rock which influences the species which occur there. Mixed sediments is a classification that refers to a mix of gravel, cobbles, sand and mud sediments. There is more information about the EUNIS habitat classification scheme here.
The MCZ also incorporates two Marine Sites of Nature Conservation Interest (SNCI); Kingmere Rocks, after which the site is named, as well as Worthing Lumps, a chalk outcrop. The MCZ is a diverse mix of rocky reefs and boulders with attached seaweed and animals and areas of sand and gravel. There are many species using these seabed habitats as places to shelter, feed and breed. To see more information on the habitats and video clips of seabed surveys click here for our interactive map.
Black seabream have complex and fascinating biology. They first mature as females and then change to males when they are larger and older. The males make a nest on the seabed and will look after the eggs and young fish when they hatch. They arrive in Sussex in the spring to feed and breed, then move further east in the summer, returning in the autumn on their way to overwintering in deeper water offshore to the west.
More information is available in this infographic and this information sheet.
Kingmere MCZ offers a range of ecosystem services which should be protected from harmful activities. There is more information in this report by Plymouth University for the Wildlife Trusts.
Fishing activity on Kingmere
The site is mainly fished by vessels based in Selsey, Shoreham, Newhaven and Littlehampton. The main commercial fishery is potting, followed by netting and trawling. Most vessels fishing in the site are small static gear boats under 10 metres.
Cuttlefish is an important species caught within the MCZ. Trawls, traps and static nets are used during the spring; coinciding with the black bream spawning season.Bass are also caught within the site, mainly by commercial rod and line fishers. The important target species in spring and summer are plaice, Dover sole, skate and black seabream, and in winter the target species are whiting, lemon sole and cod. There is more information on common species caught in Sussex availablehere.
The Kingmere area is a popular spot for angling with both local and non-local anglers all year round, with April to June during the black seabream breeding season being a key period. This site is renowned for having one of the best populations of black seabream in the south east and as such attracts anglers from all over the country at certain times of year.
More information on fishing vessel effort is in this report and in the Impact Assessment.
We continue to work with anglers to obtain feedback on the black seabream fishery through our catch return form. If you fish on Kingmere then please use this online form to tell us about your catch. An MS Excel version of the form can be downloaded here. Further information is available here.
We have worked with the Angling Trust to produce a voluntary Code of Conduct for recreational sea anglers using Kingmere MCZ.
Research Sussex IFCA has undertaken a range of research projects with various partner organisations and stakeholders to fulfil the aim of monitoring the features of Kingmere MCZ. More information is in our Research Plan, Annual Research Report and the Kingmere MCZ Research Report 2017.
Acoustic and video surveys
In 2014 and 2015, Sussex IFCA worked with Cefas and Fugro-Emu to use a side scan sonar and underwater video camera to map seabed habitats and black seabream nests. Clips from these video surveys can be found via our interactive map. The features mapped in these surveys helped to develop the spatial extent of the management zones.
Black seabream tagging
Between 2014 and 2016, Sussex IFCA worked with local charter angling skippers to attach external identification tags to seabream. Positions and details of tagged fish released were recorded for every fish and when tagged seabream were recaptured, these details were recorded again, giving some information about seabream migration patterns and site fidelity. A summary poster is avaialable here and the 2016 update is avaialable here.
Concurrent with routine compliance duties, black seabream-focussed patrols were conducted April-June to gather catch per unit effort and biological information from recreational and commercial fishers.
Since 2001, when Sussex IFCA officers are conducting a sea patrol and they see a fishing vessel, they record its position and the fishing gear it is using. Fishing activity in and around Kingmere MCZ was analysed to understand the fishing pressure on the features. A report on the fishing effort for the whole District is available here.
Angling charter vessels skippers and commercial fishermen were asked to complete a questionnaire to find out their perception of the black seabream fishing each year and how the management measures affect their activities.
Sussex IFCA conducts small fish surveys along the Sussex coast, focussing on juveniles of larger species and small fish adapted to specific nearshore conditions. Juvenile black seabream are often caught inshore as they use these sheltered areas for the first few years of their lives. For more information see the reports on the research page.
Sussex IFCA only has jurisdiction over fishing activities. We are working with partner organisations to support a whole ecosystem approach to multi-sectoral use of the site.
There are two aggregate extraction licences issued by the Marine Management Organisation for sites within the MCZ. You can find out more on the MMO's website by searching their database with the case number MLA/2015/00432 for Area 453 and the case number MLA/2015/00431 for Area 488.
Balanced Seas: site selection
After over two years of discussion, taking into account social and economic factors alongside the best available scientific evidence, stakeholders passed 127 final site recommendations to Government advisory bodies in September 2011. All the MCZ sites went out for public consultation between December 2012 and March 2013, enabling further input from the community into the sites to be designated. More information on the Balanced Seas project can be found here.
Sussex IFCA: Community Voice Method
Sussex IFCA conducted extensive informal consultation to develop and generate support for potential management measures at Kingmere. Prior to the designation of first tranche MCZ sites at the end of 2013, Sussex IFCA had already begun its first stage of consulting with the community on management. Leading the process, Sussex IFCA worked with the Marine Conservation Society and independent consultants on an innovative project which utilised a film-based technique called Community Voice Method (CVM) to gather people’s views on Sussex MCZ management.
Forty-one filmed stakeholder interviews were conducted between November 2013 and April 2014, with people selected based on their expert knowledge or involvement in relevant industries or sea user groups. The aim was to ensure as full a range of views and values as possible from across the area was captured. The 30 minute film produced was screened at 6 wider community MCZ management workshops conducted in October and November 2014. At the workshops, potential management options for different fishing activities within Kingmere MCZ were discussed.
These management options were developed by Sussex IFCA in consultation with Natural England in response to the conservation advice for the site, with key site users and the Authority’s committee.
The management measures used best available evidence at the time of management formulation. Where adaptive management measures are proposed, such as bag limits for anglers which are subject to review, agreed ongoing monitoring and research will be developed with Natural England to assess if the conservation objectives (‘recover’ for all features) are being met.
This means that there will be a review period of 4 years. The first review will be in 2021. If there is evidence that there is a significant impact on the MCZ features, then the byelaw will be amended to address this.
Links to further information
DEFRA's MCZ factsheet and designation order with site boundary coordinates
Wildlife Trusts' Kingmere page
Natural England's fact sheet and conservation advice